Birds' Bones and Living Habits


There are many kinds of birds: pigeons, ducks, ostriches, penguins... Some are good at flying, others can't fly but run fast. Some swim under water, others wading in shallow pool.

According to their living environments and living habits, birds are classified into different ecological groups. There are 8 ecological groups of birds:

  • Swimming Birds
  • Wading Birds
  • Terrestrial Birds
  • Raptors
  • Scansorial Birds
  • Singing Birds
  • Cursorial Birds (not included in dataset)
  • Marine Birds (not included in dataset)

First 6 groups are main and are covered by this dataset.

Apparently, birds belong to different ecological groups have different appearances: flying birds have strong wings and wading birds have long legs. Their living habits are somewhat reflected in their bones' shapes. As data scientists we may think of examining the underlying relationship between sizes of bones and ecological groups , and recognising birds' ecological groups by their bones' shapes.


There are 420 birds contained in this dataset. Each bird is represented by 10 measurements (features):

  • Length and Diameter of Humerus
  • Length and Diameter of Ulna
  • Length and Diameter of Femur
  • Length and Diameter of Tibiotarsus
  • Length and Diameter of Tarsometatarsus

Pigeon skeleton

All measurements are continuous float numbers (mm) with missing values represented by empty strings. The skeletons of this dataset are collections of Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. They belong to 21 orders, 153 genera, 245 species.

Each bird has a label for its ecological group:

  • SW: Swimming Birds
  • W: Wading Birds
  • T: Terrestrial Birds
  • R: Raptors
  • P: Scansorial Birds
  • SO: Singing Birds


This dataset is provided by Dr. D. Liu of Beijing Museum of Natural History.


This dataset is a 420x10 size continuous values unbalanced multi-class dataset. What can be done include:

  • Data Visualisation
  • Statical Analysis
  • Supervised Classification
  • Unsupervised Clustering


Please do not publish or cite this dataset in research papers or other public publications.

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추가 정보

저자 zjf
최종 업데이트 5월 2, 2021, 06:41 (UTC)
생성됨 5월 2, 2021, 06:41 (UTC)
kaggle_id 675
kaggle_lastUpdated 2017-01-18T03:53:49.347Z
kaggle_ref zhangjuefei/birds-bones-and-living-habits